Oz: Halloween sweet treats can be fatal for pets

The early signs of chocolate intoxication are nausea (drooling and smacking the lips) vomiting and excessive urination.

Halloween is upon us.

My favourite holiday of all, whether we have kids that are going “treat or tricking” or we just hand out candies, there is usually no one single house without treats at this time of the year.

But as we gear up for the upcoming holiday, it’s important to remember, similarly to most people, dogs tend to have a “sweet tooth” too.

Dogs and other pets are drawn to the taste of chocolate, but it is harmful for them to eat and can be fatal.

Chocolate is made from cacao beans.

Cacao beans contain a toxic substance called theobromine.

Cacao beans also contain caffeine but in much smaller amounts than theobromine.

Both theobromine and caffeine are members of a drug class called methylxanines.

The reason why theobromine is toxic for dogs is because they process it much more slowly than humans.

At 17 hours after the chocolate ingestion, half of the theobromine is still in the dog’s system. While theobromine is also toxic to cats, our felines are less likely to ingest chocolate than dogs.

Theobromine and caffeine can adversely affect the nervous system and the heart. Both can also lead to increase of the blood pressure.

The early signs of chocolate intoxication are nausea (manifested by drooling and smacking the lips) vomiting and excessive urination.

Truly toxic amounts can induce hyperactivity, rapid heart rate, tremors, seizures and eventually respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.

The more theobromine a cocoa product contains, the more poisonous it is to your dog. Research has shown that one ounce of milk chocolate per pound of body weight is potentially lethal.

Dark chocolate and baker’s chocolate are riskiest, milk and white chocolate pose a much less serious risk.

So 20 ounces of milk chocolate, 10 ounces of semi-sweet chocolate and just 2.25 ounces of baking chocolate could potentially kill a 22-pound dog.

Small dogs are at greater risk of chocolate toxicity than large dogs. This is because they can be poisoned by small quantities of chocolate.

In most instances, diagnosis is based upon physical exam findings in combination with a history of access to chocolate. There is no definitive test for chocolate ingestion.

Unfortunately, theobromine has no antidote (medication that can reverse the adverse effects)

The treatment for chocolate toxicity is primarily supportive.

Treatment focuses on addressing symptoms and problems that develop until the toxins are excreted by the body.

In most cases, intoxication resolves within 24 to 36 hours. If caught shortly after ingestion, attempts to reduce the chocolate poison absorption can be made by inducing vomiting or feeding active charcoal.

Intravenous fluids and anti-seizure medication are also frequently required. Symptoms of intoxication usually occur four to 24 hours after the ingestion.

Prevention is the key. Keep all chocolate goodies in a non-accessible place for your pet. Don’t share any chocolate with your pet on any circumstances.

If you suspect that your dog is exposed to chocolate, contact your veterinarian. The dog’s weight, the type and amount of the chocolate ingested are all important information for the vet in order to assess the dog’s risk and condition.

Don’t let this information make you avoid bringing chocolate into your house. Just store the chocolates in a place that is inaccessible to any of your pets. Paying close attention to your gluttonous pet’s eating should keep your pets safe and the holiday spirit still alive.